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What is the instanceof JavaScript operator?

February 8, 2024
What is the instanceof JavaScript operator?
Table of Contents
  • Understanding instanceof in JavaScript
  • typeof vs. instanceof
  • What Does "Instance" Mean in JavaScript?
  • Checking if an Instance is an Object in JavaScript
  • Practical Example: Using instanceof with Custom Objects
  • Conclusion

JavaScript is a language teeming with concepts that can seem daunting at first glance. One such concept is the instanceof operator, a tool in your JavaScript utility belt that's invaluable for understanding and validating the types of objects during runtime. Before we dive into the nitty-gritty, let's look at a simple code snippet:

1class Car {
2 constructor(brand) {
3 this.brand = brand;
4 }
7let myCar = new Car("Ford");
8console.log(myCar instanceof Car); // true

This introductory example demonstrates instanceof in action, checking if myCar is an instance of the Car class. Now, let's buckle up and explore the depths of instanceof in JavaScript.

Understanding instanceof in JavaScript

The instanceof operator in JavaScript is used to check whether a specific object is an instance of a class or a constructor function. It helps in determining the prototype chain of an object, which is crucial when dealing with inheritance in JavaScript.

For instance, consider you've just started learning JavaScript through this interactive course. You'll soon discover that JavaScript objects inherit properties and methods from a prototype. The instanceof operator allows you to verify this relationship between an object and its prototype.

typeof vs. instanceof

While both typeof and instanceof are used for type checking, they serve different purposes. The typeof operator returns a string indicating the type of the unevaluated operand. It's great for primitive data types like string, number, or boolean. On the other hand, instanceof checks the prototype chain of an object, making it more suitable for custom objects and complex data types.

Here's how you can distinguish them:

1let num = 42;
3console.log(typeof num); // "number"
4console.log(num instanceof Number); // false

In the above example, typeof correctly identifies num as a number, but instanceof returns false because num is not an instance of the Number object.

What Does "Instance" Mean in JavaScript?

In JavaScript, an "instance" refers to a concrete occurrence of any object that has been created using a constructor function or a class. For example:

1let dateInstance = new Date();
2console.log(dateInstance instanceof Date); // true

Here, dateInstance is an instance of the Date class.

Checking if an Instance is an Object in JavaScript

In JavaScript, almost everything is an object, including instances created by constructors. To check if an instance is an object, you can use the instanceof operator or simply check its type:

1console.log(dateInstance instanceof Object); // true
2console.log(typeof dateInstance === 'object'); // true

Both checks confirm that dateInstance is indeed an object.

Practical Example: Using instanceof with Custom Objects

Let's create a custom object and see instanceof at work:

1function Animal(name) {
2 = name;
4let dog = new Animal("Buddy");
6console.log(dog instanceof Animal); // true

Here, dog is verified as an instance of the Animal constructor.


The instanceof operator is a powerful feature in JavaScript that aids in type-checking and understanding object inheritance. By using it alongside other JavaScript fundamentals, such as those covered in HTML, CSS, and Web Development, you can craft robust and dynamic web applications.

For further reading on JavaScript's instanceof and object-oriented programming, check out these external resources:

Remember, practice makes perfect. Experiment with instanceof to get a feel for its behavior and quirks. Happy coding!

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