Cascading Style Sheets, better known as CSS, is a style sheet language used for describing the look and formatting of a document written in HTML. CSS is one of the cornerstone technologies of the web and understanding it is crucial for any web developer. This guide will introduce you to the basics and help you master more complex CSS concepts.
At its simplest, CSS allows you to select elements and apply styles to them. You can select elements by tag name, class, or ID, and apply a multitude of different properties to them. Here's an example of what CSS looks like:
In this example, all paragraph (
<p>) elements will be styled with red text that is 18 pixels in size.
You can include CSS in your HTML documents in three ways: inline styles, internal style sheets, or external style sheets. However, it is generally recommended to use external style sheets as they promote reusability and separation of concerns.
CSS selectors are used to select the element(s) you want to style. There are several types of selectors, including:
Once you've selected an element, you can assign properties to it. Each property has a value, and together they form a declaration. Properties could be anything from the size of the text, to the color of the background, to the style of a border.
In CSS, each element is considered as a rectangular box. The CSS box model is essentially a box that wraps around every HTML element. It consists of: margins, borders, padding, and the actual content. Understanding this model is key to being able to create layouts with CSS, and to understand how padding, margin, and border affect your elements.
CSS provides different methods for positioning elements. The
position property can take five different values:
sticky. Each of these values positions an element differently and understanding them is essential to mastering CSS.
For layouts, CSS offers several techniques such as Flexbox and Grid. These tools allow for complex layouts to be created with less code and more flexibility.
Responsive design is an approach that makes your web pages look good on all devices (desktops, tablets, and phones). CSS is the key technology that makes this possible. Media queries are a popular technique for creating responsive designs. They allow you to apply different styles depending on the characteristics of the device display.
In this example, the background color of the body changes to light blue when the screen width is 600px or less.
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